With the development of the food industry, the diversification of food varieties not only has requirements for sweetness, but also meets requirements such as Thickening, osmotic pressure, hygroscopicity, crystallinity, freezing point, chemical stability, fermentation and many other requirements, improve food quality and product quality. Compared to traditional cane and beet sugar. Starch sugar changes the ratio of various sugars of starch sugar varieties through different conversion pathways and process conditions, so as to obtain ideal sweetness and meet the needs of processing. There are many types of starch sugars with different properties. Different types of starch sugars have different nutritional properties and functional properties, which are difficult to achieve with ordinary sweeteners. Good applicability has become the real reason for the rapid development of starch sugar industry.
The types of starch sugar can be roughly divided into liquid glucose, crystalline glucose (whole sugar), maltose syrup (caramel, high maltose, maltose), maltodextrin, malto-oligosaccharide, fructose syrup, etc.
1. Liquid glucose: It is a mixed syrup composed of glucose, maltose and malto-oligosaccharides obtained by controlling the moderate hydrolysis of starch. Both glucose and maltose are sugars with strong reducing properties. The greater the degree of starch hydrolysis, the higher the content of glucose, etc. sex is stronger. In the starch sugar industry, the glucose value (dextrose equivalent) is commonly referred to as the DE value (all reducing sugars in the saccharification solution are calculated as glucose, and the percentage of dry matter is called the glucose value) to indicate the degree of starch hydrolysis. Liquid glucose can be divided into three categories according to the degree of conversion: high, medium and low. The medium invert syrup with the largest output and the widest application in the industry has a DE value of 30% to 50%, and the DE value of about 42% is also called standard glucose syrup. The DE value of high invert syrup is 50% to 70%, and the DE value of low invert syrup is below 30%. Liquid glucose with different DE values has certain differences in performance, so starch sugar with different degrees of hydrolysis can be selected for different purposes.
2.Glucose: It is the product of complete hydrolysis of starch by acid or enzyme. Due to different production processes, the purity of the obtained glucose product is also different. Generally, it can be divided into two categories: crystalline glucose and whole sugar, of which glucose accounts for 95% to 97% of the dry matter. %, and the rest are a small amount of oligosaccharides remaining due to incomplete hydrolysis. The obtained saccharification solution is decolorized with activated carbon, and then flows through an ion exchange resin column to remove impurities such as inorganic substances, and a colorless, high-purity refined product is obtained. saccharification liquid. This refined saccharification solution is concentrated, cooled and crystallized in a crystallizing tank to obtain a water-containing α-glucose crystal product; crystallized at a higher temperature in a vacuum tank to obtain anhydrous β-glucose crystal product; crystallized in a vacuum tank to obtain anhydrous β-glucose crystallized product Alpha-glucose crystal product.
3. Fructose syrup: If the refined glucose liquid is passed through the immobilized glucose isomerase column, part of the glucose is isomerized and converted into its isomer fructose to obtain a syrup whose sugar composition is mainly fructose and glucose, It is then purified by activated carbon and ion exchange resin and concentrated to obtain a colorless and transparent fructose syrup product. The mass fraction of this product is 71%, and the sugars are grouped into fructose 42% (dry basis), glucose 53%, and oligosaccharide 5%. , the sweetness is equal to sucrose, but the flavor is better, it is called the first generation fructose syrup product. In the late 1970s, the world successfully researched the technology of separating fructose and glucose with inorganic molecular sieve. The first-generation product was separated by a molecular sieve to simulate a moving bed to obtain a sugar liquid with a fructose content of 94%, which was then mixed with an appropriate amount of the first-generation product. The fructose content was 55% and 90% in two products. The sweetness is higher than that of sucrose, which are 1.1 times and 1.4 times the sweetness of sucrose respectively, also known as the second and third generation products. The mass fraction of the second-generation product is 77%, fructose 55% (dry basis), glucose 40%, and oligosaccharide 5%. The mass fraction of the third-generation product is 80%, 90% fructose (dry basis), 7% glucose, and 3% oligosaccharide.
4. Maltose syrup: a starch syrup made of starch as raw material and hydrolyzed by enzyme or acid combination method. Compared with liquid glucose, the content of glucose in maltose syrup is lower (generally below 10%), while the content of maltose is higher than that of liquid glucose. High (usually 40% to 90%), according to the production method and maltose content, they can be called caramel, high maltose syrup, ultra-high maltose syrup, etc., and the sugar composition is mainly maltose, dextrin and oligosaccharides.