Trehalose is known as “The sugar of life”
Trehalose was first extracted from the ergot fungus of rye by Wiggers et al in 1832, and then the French chemist Berthelot discovered the sugar from the molasses secreted by a weevil, which may be more algae. The reason is named trehalose; studies have found that trehalose is widely found in many edible animals, plants and microorganisms in nature, such as beans, shrimp, bread, beer and yeast fermented foods that are eaten in life. Trehalose, which is widely found in fungi, algae, mosses, and invertebrates, is also known as “the sugar of life”.
The industrial production of trehalose has gone through three stages: microbial extraction method, microbial fermentation method, and enzyme synthesis method. At the beginning, trehalose was extracted by the extraction method, and the price was extremely high. Until 1992, the Japanese Hayashibara Co., Ltd. Sugar scientist Kazuhiko Maruta discovered that Q36, a soil bacterium from the genus Arthrobacter, produces two enzymes. These two enzymes, together with the starch-degrading enzyme discovered in 1966, repeatedly react with maltodextrin to produce trehalose. Afterwards, trehalose is produced in large quantities by various methods such as fermentation yeast, Grifola frondosa cell extraction or enzymatic conversion of starch.
China has been producing trehalose industrially since 2000. At present, it is produced by enzymatic synthesis, using glucose, maltose or starch as substrates, decomposed into short-chain dextrins by exclusive enzyme preparations, and then converted into trehalose by the action of trehalose synthase. So trehalose is an industrial sweetener, not derived from seaweed.
Trehalose is a common food raw material
Trehalose has very good stability to heat and acid-base, and Maillard reaction does not occur when heated. At present, this sugar is widely used in food, biomedicine, agriculture, cosmetics and other fields. Because of its stable nature, it can be added during food processing to prolong the shelf life of food, inhibit protein denaturation, and maintain food flavor. Add to.
Trehalose is actually a common food ingredient, and it has been approved for use in many countries many years ago:
- In October 2000, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) granted trehalose GRAS (Generally Recognized as Safe) status and approved to enter the U.S. food field;
- In November 2000, the Joint Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations and the World Health Organization (JECFA) confirmed that there is no need to limit the allowable daily intake (ADI) of trehalose;
- On September 25, 2001, the European Union approved trehalose to enter the market as a new type of food or food ingredient;
- Around 2000, Canada, South Korea and other countries and regions also approved trehalose for use in food, some as food raw materials, and some as food additives;
- The industry standard for trehalose was jointly drafted by Nanning Zhongnuo Bio and the China Food and Fermentation Industry Research Institute in 2007, and the national recommended standard for trehalose in 2009 was GB/T 23529-2009;
- In 2014, the National Health Commission of China also approved trehalose as a common food raw material, which can be added to various foods.