When it comes to protein supplementation, the most common way to think of is to drink milk, eat eggs, and eat meat.
Supplementing protein through plants is obviously not what most people can think of
So is vegetable protein better than animal protein?
Protein and Amino Acids
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After the protein is absorbed by the body, it is converted into amino acids, which can re-produce protein for the cells of the body and improve the metabolism in the body. Its synthetic glutathione has high antioxidant function.
Essential amino acids (referring to the body cannot be synthesized or the synthesis speed cannot meet the needs), and need to rely on external supplements (food intake)
Protein quality comparison
Through the following three points of comparison-
1. Protein content in food
The protein content of meat, fish, and shellfish is about 15% to 25%.
The fat (fat part) is only about 2%.
Egg protein is slightly lower, 10%-14%.
Milk has the lowest protein content, 1%-5%.
The protein content of soybeans is as high as 40%.
Nuts such as peanuts, walnuts, almonds and lotus seeds contain higher protein (15%-30%).
Cereals generally contain 6%-10% protein.
Potatoes and ordinary vegetables contain 2%-4% protein.
2. Is protein easy to digest and absorb
Animal protein is very similar to human protein, but when digesting animal protein, the body needs to consume more energy to break down animal protein into individual amino acid molecules, which are then reconstituted into new proteins for use.
Vegetable protein belongs to non-high-quality protein and incomplete protein, which is different from human amino acids. The outer layer of vegetable protein is wrapped by a layer of film, so the digestion process is relatively slow.
In the metabolic process, plant protein will produce more unbalanced amino acids, and its absorption utilization rate is only about 50%.
In contrast, the proportion of amino acids in animal protein is relatively balanced, and the digestion and absorption utilization rate can reach about 70%.
3. Amino acid ratio
The amino acid structure and ratio of animal protein are similar to that of humans, and the amino acids provided are very close to the eight essential amino acids (except collagen), so it is a better source of protein.
Although the source of vegetable protein is wide, there is a certain gap between the type of protein and the relative quantity of the human body.
When plant protein is ingested, it is easy to produce deficiency of essential amino acids such as immunoglobulin, glutamic acid and lysine (ie restricted amino acids).
Protein source food calorie comparison
Under the premise of obtaining the same protein, the food source of animal protein (meat) tends to have higher calories and food caloric effect.
Calories will not be explained here. When calorie intake> calorie consumption, fat is easy to accumulate.
It is well known that vegetables have low calories. The above picture shows the same calories. The protein content of meat and vegetables (broccoli is a high-protein vegetable) are compared.
Food heating effect
During food intake, the movement of the digestive system and the secretion of digestive enzymes will consume calories
At the same time, when food is oxidized and decomposed in the body, it not only releases heat energy, but also increases the body’s basal metabolic rate.
This leads to changes in the metabolism of carbohydrates, fats and proteins in the body, along with the release of energy, resulting in additional calories consumed.
The caloric effect of fat accounts for about 4%-5% of its caloric energy.
The caloric effect of carbohydrate food accounts for about 5%-6% of its caloric energy.
The thermal effect of protein food accounts for about 30%-40% of its heat energy.
Eat 100cal of fat and consume 4cal due to the thermal effect of food.
Take in 100cal of carbohydrates and consume 6cal due to the thermic effect of food.
Intake of 100cal protein, 30 cal is consumed by the thermal effect of food.
Has been calculated
(High protein) The thermal effect of vegetables is about 1.2-1.5 times that of ordinary meat (domestic duck, pig and beef).
In other words, eating high-protein vegetables per unit of calorie will consume more calories than eating ordinary meat.
Fiber, fat and cholesterol
While ingesting plant protein through plants, you can also ingest fiber which is not available in meat.
Fiber in plants is also called dietary fiber, which occupies a large space in the stomach and makes people feel full.
At the same time, it will absorb a lot of water, increase the volume of excrement in the intestine, and promote intestinal peristalsis.
By eating meat, fat is eaten and reaches the small intestine, where it is broken down into fatty acids and glycerin, and then absorbed by the small intestine.
It is wrapped with cholesterol and protein to form lipoprotein, which enters the blood.
Lipoprotein carries lipids (fat and cholesterol) in the blood and sends them to other tissues for use.
In other words, the more fat you eat, the higher the lipoprotein content, and the more cholesterol is transported.
High cholesterol levels are one of the important causes of heart blockage.
Saturated fatty acids will synthesize more cholesterol, and unsaturated fatty acids will esterify low-density lipoproteins to lower cholesterol levels.
In addition, since the body can synthesize saturated fatty acids and cholesterol, and saturated fatty acids in food can promote the body to synthesize more cholesterol, reducing the body’s saturated fatty acids can reduce the body’s burden.
Vegetables, fruits, and nuts contain a lot of unsaturated fatty acids. And meat and dairy products also have saturated fatty acids.
Plant protein seems to be better for cardiovascular health and weight loss, while animal protein has an advantage in obtaining quantitative nutrition through a small amount of intake (food).
For vegetarians, there is no need to worry about malnutrition caused by only supplementing plant protein (of course, the premise is to consume a variety of fruits and vegetables)
For fitness people, protein supplementation is not just to imitate the fitness stars’ chicken breasts, eggs, etc., but soy can be used to supplement more high-quality protein.
Of course, for ordinary people who want to stay healthy, it is recommended to eat more vegetables and fruits with high plant protein, and moderate intake of meat and poultry with low fat content.